Earthquakes are a natural disaster that occurs because of the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust. Seismic waves are created and the tremors that are felt can be measured by seismometers. Earthquakes are measured based on their magnitude (the Richter scale). There have only been a couple that registered over a magnitude of 9.0 on the seismometer. An earthquake with a magnitude greater than 9.0 is an extreme natural disaster and are very rare.

Here’s a countdown of the 10 largest earthquakes ever recorded:

10. Assam – Tibet Earthquake on August 15, 1950

About 70 villages ended up being destroyed during this massive earthquake, mostly due to landslides. The landslides ended up blocking the Subansiri River and creating a natural dam, which broke just eight days later killing over 500 people.

9. Sumatra Earthquake (aka Nias Earthquake) on March 28, 2005

8. Rat Islands, Alaska Earthquake on February 4, 1965

7. Coast of Ecuador – Earthquake on January 31, 1906

6. Chile Earthquake on February 27, 2010

It is estimated that the losses faced by the economy of Chile added up to $15 to $30 billion and the insurance industry in Chile took a hit of between $4 and $7 billion.

5. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia on November 4, 1952

4. Honshu, Japan on March 11, 2011

3. Northern Sumatra Indian Ocean earthquake on December 26, 2004

2. Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 27, 1964

Anchorage felt the worst of the earthquake and suffered the most property damages. Houses, buildings, schools, and other structures were all devastated; some beyond repair. The tsunami was the most intense part of this earthquake, sending waves of up to 67 meters towards shore.

1. Valdivia, Chile on May 22, 1960

In Hawaii, the tsunamis that came from the earthquake caused 61 deaths and waves as high as 5.5 meters destroyed over 1,600 homes. Before the giant earthquake, 4 foreshocks occurred that were higher than a magnitude 7.0. One of these was a magnitude 7.9 and caused serious damage to the Concepcion area. The aftershocks were severe, too, with 5 of them being higher than a magnitude 7.0. This earthquake in Chile is the largest one recorded in the 20th century. The rupture zone of the earthquake is estimated at about 1000 kilometers long, stretching from Lebu to Puerto Aisen.